CLIO 7 (1) - page 35

The use of Australia to hold
exiled prisoners has affected them
by many cultural and political ways,
as it had impacts on the infrastruc-
ture of Australia, a huge effect on
the Aborigines and affected the de-
velopment of Australia's democratic
In 1776 America claimed
independence from Britain, starting
again as a new country, part of the
British Empire. This changed a lot
for the British society of the time;
however one of the biggest issues
was as to what would be done with
the criminals being convicted, who
had before been sent away to Amer-
ica as an exile ground. In 1770 James
Cook had claimed the East Coast of
Australia for Britain and, not want-
ing the French empire expanding
into this region, established it as a
penal colony, giving an alternative
to the use of America. The first ship
arrived in Sydney in 1788, which was
the first European settlement on the
whole of Oceania. Those sent there
were often done so for petty crimes,
such as minor theft, as worse crimes
were punishable by hanging. The
use of Australia as a penal colony
in order to save money and space
in Britain lasted until 1868 when an
anti-transportation act was passed,
with the penal colonies being given
up, yet many of the convicts chose
to stay and build up a new civilisa-
tion there, where they were already
useful and prosperous. The trans-
portation has definitely had a large
impact on Australia’s society today;
however it is not necessarily a large
part of their culture.
The impacts of transpor-
tation are primarily evident in the
physical infrastructure of Australian
cities. As it was one of the biggest
penal colonies, where the first
European settlement was found-
ed, many exiled criminals were put
to work building a large port and
especially housing for those soldiers
tasked with overseeing the labour.
Still today, Sydney attracts the larg-
est amounts of tourists and trade,
due to its large ports and focus on
the river which runs through the
centre. Sydney originally referred
to the region in which the exiled
convicts where kept, yet they built
What effect did the
transportation of
have on
development of
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